ISO 27001 (formally known as ISO/IEC 27001:2005) is a specification for an information security management system (ISMS). An ISMS is a framework of policies and procedures that includes all legal, physical and technical controls involved in an organisation’s information risk management processes.
According to its documentation, ISO 27001 was developed to “provide a model for establishing, implementing, operating, monitoring, reviewing, maintaining and improving an information security management system.”
ISO 27001 uses a topdown, risk-based approach and is technology-neutral. The specification defines a six-part planning process:
- Define a security policy.
- Define the scope of the ISMS.
- Conduct a risk assessment.
- Manage identified risks.
- Select control objectives and controls to be implemented.
- Prepare a statement of applicability.
The specification includes details for documentation, management responsibility, internal audits, continual improvement, and corrective and preventive action. The standard requires cooperation among all sections of an organisation.
The 27001 standard does not mandate specific information security controls, but it provides a checklist of controls that should be considered in the accompanying code of practice, ISO/IEC 27002:2005. This second standard describes a comprehensive set of information security control objectives and a set of generally accepted good practice security controls.
ISO 27002 contains 12 main sections:
- Risk assessment
- Security policy
- Organization of information security
- Asset management
- Human resources security
- Physical and environmental security
- Communications and operations management
- Access control
- Information systems acquisition, development and maintenance
- Information security incident management
- Business continuity management
Organisations are required to apply these controls appropriately in line with their specific risks. Third-party accredited certification is recommended for ISO 27001 conformance.
Other standards being developed in the 27000 family are:
- 27003 -implementation guidance.
- 27004 – suggests metrics to help improve the effectiveness of an ISMS.
- 27005 – an information security risk management standard.
- 27006 – a guide to the certification or registration process
- 27007 – ISMS auditing guideline.